For those who accepted the idea of an absolute beginning, this implied that God created the cosmos in two stages: God made the building materials (unformed earth, water, etc.) In all its meanings, especially in the first and second, the Hebrew speaker presumes an onlooker, to whom the object in question appears coming into being, becoming or being, as the case may be. was without form and void: confusion and emptiness, ἀόρατος καὶ ἀκατασκεύαστος, "Nor aught nor naught existed; yon bright sky. In Exodus 20:11 we read of a literal six day creation. To intimate sequence in time the conjunction would have been prefixed to the verb in the form ותהי vatehı̂y, "then was.". In Syriac the verb is a very common one for the incubation of birds; and, in allusion to this place, it is metaphorically employed, both of the waving of the hand of the priest over the cup in consecrating the wine for the Eucharist, and of that of the patriarch over the head of a bishop at his consecration. Genesis 1:3-31 explain the process of creation by which God formed what was formless and filled what was void. (n) Martin. ", והארץ vehā'ārets, "and the earth." (m) Orphei Argonautica, ver. ", רחף rāchaph, "be soft, tremble." ((r) Strabo. l. 2. c. 10. p. 33. It is usually worded in English as “waste and void,” “formless and empty,” or “chaos and desolation.” The account of this new creation properly begins at the end of this second verse; and the details of the process are described in the natural way an onlooker would have done, who beheld the changes that successively took place.Matthew Poole's Commentary The same confused mass or heap is here called both earth, from its most solid and substantial part; and the deep, from its vast bulk and depth; and waters, from its outward face and covering. As an old traditional word, it is construed like a proper name without an article (Ewald, Gramm.). . Cicero do Natura Deorum, l. After this general outline, the Bible gives a more detailed account of the creation of man and woman.—Genesis 2:7-25. Genesis 2:1–3 describes the seventh day of God's creation week, in which God rested from His work. Caphtor Uperah, fol. Christianity, Greek history, Greek Library, Greek Religion, Orthodox Christianity. Lactant, de falsa Relig. Piel, "brood, flutter. ארץ 'erets means not only "earth," but "country, land," a portion of the earth's surface defined by natural, national, or civil boundaries; as, "the land of" Egypt, "thy land" Exodus 23:9-10. "Be," as a change of state, "become." All three describe the condition of the earth immediately after the creation of the universe. Piel, "brood, flutter. Here is the List of Symbols in Genesis 1, 2 & 3: Symbol. l. 1. p. 7. (c) Darkness covered the deep waters, for the waters covered everything. AC 14. l. 2. c. 10. p. 33. "Be, as an event, start into being, begin to be, come to pass." (a) Hymn. This abyss is explained by waters in the next clause, which seem to be uppermost; and this was all a dark turbid chaos, as before expressed, without any light or motion, till an agitation was made by the Spirit, as is next observed: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters, which covered the earth, Psalm 104:6 the earthy particles being heaviest sunk lower, and the waters being lighter rose up above the others: hence Thales (q) the philosopher makes water to be the beginning of all things, as do the Indian Brahmans (r): and Aristotle (s) himself owns that this was the most ancient opinion concerning the origin of the universe, and observes, that it was not only the opinion of Thales, but of those that were the most remote from the then present generation in which he lived, and of those that first wrote on divine things; and it is frequent in Hesiod and Homer to make Oceanus, or the ocean, with Tethys, to be the parents of generation: and so the Scriptures represent the original earth as standing out of the water, and consisting of it, 2 Peter 3:5 and upon the surface of these waters, before they were drained off the earth, "the Spirit of God moved"; which is to be understood not of a wind, as Onkelos, Aben Ezra, and many Jewish writers, as well as Christians, interpret it; since the air, which the wind is a motion of, was not made until the second day.

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