According to the National Science Foundation, Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.  In 2004 Howard Dean stated, "In some ways, I consider myself separate from the other three (Yale) candidates of 2004. It moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from East India Company governor Elihu Yale. In addition, with late 19th-century concerns about the impact of modern life on the human body, athletics offered hope that neither the individual nor the society was coming apart. In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The fictional, turn-of-the-20th-century Yale man Frank Merriwell embodied the heroic ideal without racial prejudice, and his fictional successor Frank Stover in the novel Stover at Yale (1911) questioned the business mentality that had become prevalent at the school. The twelve colleges are named for important alumni or significant places in university history. For example, Owen Johnson's novel, Stover at Yale, follows the college career of Dink Stover, and Frank Merriwell, the model for all later juvenile sports fiction, plays football, baseball, crew, and track at Yale while solving mysteries and righting wrongs. Membership is by invitation.  In March 2011 a Title IX complaint was filed against Yale by students and recent graduates, including editors of Yale's feminist magazine Broad Recognition, alleging that the university had a hostile sexual climate. 39, Gary Fencik", "Amos Alonzo Stagg - The University of Chicago Athletics Athletics", "Walter Camp (1951) - Hall of Fame - National Football Foundation", "Report: Canucks to add ex-player Chris Higgins in player development role | The Province", "The Country's Most Illustrious Squash Player Lives in Portland", "Don Schollander | Swimming | Olympic Hall of Fame", "Two of the Six Yale Athletes in the Olympics Return Home With Medals", "SAILING: Yale's Olympic legacy continues", "Memoir demonstrates Yalies have always been crazy", "The Rise of Intercollegiate Football and Its Portrayal in American Popular Literature. , The school mascot is "Handsome Dan," the Yale bulldog, and the Yale fight song contains the refrain, "Bulldog, bulldog, bow wow wow".  In 2004, Dean of the Nursing school, Catherine Gilliss, was appointed the Dean of Duke University's School of Nursing and Vice Chancellor for Nursing Affairs. 912-478-4636, 11935 Abercorn Street
Though Yale's colleges resemble their English precursors organizationally and architecturally, they are dependent entities of Yale College and have limited autonomy. The artifacts were restored to Peru in 2012.. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector.  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